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Ethiopia Ethiopia (Abyssinia) and the Horn of Africa: This portion of North-East Africa may be divided into two regions:
  • (1) the Coastal Lowlands and
  • (2) the Ethiopian Highlands.


  • (1) The Coastal Lowlands, fringing the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean, consist mainly of poor savannas and scrub. Hot at all seasons, they receive little rain. There are no permanent rivers, but in districts where irrigation is possible rice and cotton are grown.

  • (2) The Ethiopian Highlands are composed partly of horizontal lavas carved into plateaux, separated by canyons like those cut by the Blue Nile (flowing out of Lake Tana) Sobat, and Atbara, which flow northwest to the White Nile. The lower slopes of the southwestern highlands are clad with forests from which wild rubber and wild coffee are obtained, while in cleared areas cultivated coffee is grown.

    The majority of the people live in the Highlands, where they dwell in scattered villages. They merely grow enough food for their own needs, millet being the principal crop.

    Ethiopia has an area of 1221900 Sq. Km. and its capital city is Addis Ababa. Ethiopia produces barley, wheat and beans. Dependence of the people on subsistence farming is their fate. Sheep and goat provide meat, wool, hides and skin. Coffee, hide and skin are exported.

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