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The United States
Physiographic regions: - United States can be divided into eight physical regions. The regions are as follows
(1) Appalachian Highlands: - Much of the region remains isolated. Only there are few exceptions where some sort of activity goes on. Because of rocky and hilly region farming has been difficult in New England. Piedmont region is now in the form of irregular hills. The land here is not so steep as to bar any type of cultivation on the hilltops or valleys. Much of the Southern Piedmont plateau is forested. The Ridge and valley area has always been very difficult on account of its ruggedness and many depressions. Allegheny plateau with its two mountains namely Catskill and Pocono have always created problems for the transportation and communication. Finger Lakes district of New York is attracting the tourism industry because of its scenic beauty.
(2) Coastal plains: - It has been always ideal region for farming. The region is flat and leveled. The main relief feature is known as the Fall Line, which is the ideal site for waterpower developments.
(3) Interior plains: - It is a region of flat to rolling countryside. It has a few areas of hilly land. The land is suitable for agriculture and the climate is that of continental type. The flatness of the interior plains is unbroken between the Appalachian Highlands in the east and the Rocky Mountains in the west. It is the heart of U.S.A. and the largest physical region. These include Central Lowlands and Great Plains.
(4) Interior Highlands: - These are located in southern Missouri and northern Arkansas. These include Ozark Plateau and Quachita Mountains.
(5) Canadian Shield: - Adirondacks Mountains lie between lakes Chain plains and Ontario and also stretch to north of the Mohawk valley. Adirondacks are a region of lakes.
(6) Rocky Mountains: - The Rocky Mountains are divided into Northern and Southern Rockies. Wyoming Basin divides the two. Wyoming Basin has grass-covered slopes, which are useful for grazing of cattle and sheep. This basin provides a gateway through the Rockies for transportation between the west and east parts of the country. Both North and South Rocky regions have rugged terrain and in the past had created difficulties for the accessibility in the region.
(7) Intermontane Region: - This includes Columbia Intermontane Province Basin and Range Province and Colorado Plateau. This region lies between the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada Cascades. It has diversified topography. There are plateau, mountain ranges, basin and valleys.
(8) Pacific Region: - This region is full of mountains and the mountains of the Pacific Northwest lie parallel to the Pacific coasts. Sierra Nevada is rugged and presents the transportation difficulties. The central valley of California has many lowlands. -
Soils are closely associated with climate and vegetation. These are grey-brown and red-yellow podzolics, chernozemic soils, and alluvial soils. The fertility of the grey brown podzols, merging with chernozemic soils to the west, the favorable topography, the moderate growing season, and reliable rainfall are the determining factors. These combine to make the area from Central Ohio westward to Nebraska, one of the world's most productive agricultural areas. Chernozem soil covers the great plains of the United States. The red-yellow podzol has experienced severe leaching. Piedmont accelerated the soil erosion. The black-soil belts of Texas and Alabama, the limestone valleys of the Appalachians and the alluvial Mississippi valley are some of the best soils of the Unites States. Destruction resulting from over-grazing, droughts, water and wind erosion an improper cropping are the problems persisting in Anglo-America.
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