The U.S.A. is the greatest industrial country in the world. The east, particularly the Appalachian region, is the most important industrial region of the U.S.A.
Coal and water power, in addition to market and climate has been the basic factor in this industrialization of the east. The largest industrial areas are either situated on the Atlantic sea board, or on the coal fields, in order to be able to obtain coal easily and cheaply. Among the important industries are the iron and steel industry, textile industry, leather and paper industry.
The Northeast region of U.S.A. in New England finds a major industrial area. Despite the lackness of raw materials it has flourished in the industrial growth and produces more than 10 per cent manufactures of the country. New England is known for its textile industry, though it produces no cotton.
Concord, Manchester, Lowel, Lawrence, Fall River, New Bedford, Providence are some of the important cities for textile. Ships are built at Quincy. Brockton, Haverhill and Lynn are famous towns for shoe-making. New York is the largest city in the world. Buffalo is the second largest city in New York. It is a great manufacturing city as it has both coal and hydro-electric power resources. The Pittsburgh district tops in the world in iron and steel industry. Most of the cities of the coastal plain are manufacturing centres. Boston is the largest city of Southern New England. Massashucet Institute of Technology and Harvard University, Yale, Princeton, Clark, Pennsylvania and John Hopkins etc. are the educational institutions of world fame. Manhattan Island is a busy business centre of New York district. Philadelphia is the fourth largest city of U.S.A.
It is also one of the top ranking sea ports of the country. Baltimore is one of the big and important sea ports of the country. Washington, D.C. is the capital of U.S.A. and has its own elegance and beauty. It is the centre of all governmental activities. In the Midwest region of U.S.A. most of the industries are located in central lowlands. Heavy industries such as iron and steel are located in Gory, Detroit, Cleveland, Duluth. Agricultural industries such as food processing, flour milling and meat packing are also centered here. Meat packing in Chicago is done in larger scale. Chicago is the largest city of central lowlands. It is centre of the production of the chemicals drugs and air crafts. Cleveland is an important city on the shore of Lake Erie, Detroit is famous for automobile industry.
The largest city of the Great Plains is Denver. It is a centre of tourism. Manufacturing in the southern states of U.S.A. is possible and flourishing nowadays because it has all favorable factors that are needed for the establishment of industry. The Gulf coast area is industrially important. Houston is the biggest centre of chemicals, machinery, oil refining and ship building. Birmingham is leading steel producing city of the South. The Dallas Fortworth Zone is also important for many industries such as air plane manufacturing, meat packing and other industries. Houston, Dallas, New Orleans and San Antonio are the main cities of the South. Houston is a Cargo-port, which is one of the ten best ports of the country. New Orleans is also a port of importance. Memphis is famous for hard wood market. Miami and Miami Beach are Well-known recreation centre in the world. Oklahoma city, Jackson, Little Rock, Montgomery, Richmond and Nashville are the capital cities of the different states of south U.S.A.
The western part of the country does not have much industry. Some industrialization has occurred around Los Angles. Santa Bara-bara and San Diego are also important towns of this region. Berkeley is an educational centre with a residential university. Anchorage is the main city of Alaska. Honolulu is the capital of Hawaii. Pearl Harbor has the defense installations in it. Birmingham is a leading centre of ferrous metallurgy in the south, depending on local resources. In the Pacific coast in Los Angeles and San Francisco, the machine building industry received a great impetus during World War II.
Automobile Industry : American Automobile Industry is also remarkable. It consumes 20% of the steel produced within the country. Every year motor cars consume 100 billion barrels of oil, crores of yards of cloth, tonnes of glass, plastic, dye, varnish and other things.
Cotton textile Industry: It has the second place in the U.S.A. In the past it was mainly localized in New England State. By the end of the 19th century, however, it began to appear in the south and produced the bulk of cotton fabrics. Atlanta is the most important cotton textile centre in the south. The centres in New England States are engaged in high quality production. Boston is also the centre of the country's woolen textiles.
It is also the centre of the leather industry.
Besides these, there are the following minor industries localized in centres noted against each;
Flour-milling-Minneapolis, Chicago, St. Jones, Kansas city.
Sugar refining and meat packing-Maine and New York
Fruit canning California
Fish canning Baltimore
Transportation The important waterways are Mississippi-Missouri waterways from north to south and the Great Lakes system from east to west. In many parts of America, distances are so great that good roads are a necessity. Even automobiles are necessities, not luxuries, to families. The number of motor cars in the U.S.A. exceeds 105 million, which is more than 45% of the world's total. America's 8.88 million kilometers of roads have brought every field and barn into the circle of civilization. Over and above all these means of transport, the U.S.A. has more than 2,62,400 kilometers of commercial air line routes. The country has air routes on which operate, 7,441 aeroplanes.
Trade The U.S.A. occupies the most important position in international trade. Her chief rivals in foreign trade are the U.K., West Germany and Japan. Her exports go to all the countries of the free world. She is a leading exporter of industrial machinery, textiles and textile manufactures, iron and steel products, electrical equipment, chemicals, aircrafts etc.
American Towns Chicago, the 'metropolis' of the near west is the second largest town of the U.S.A. It is the most outstanding nodal point, being a major port, and at the Great Lakes and largest railway junction of the U.S.A.
Detroit, the principal centre of automobile and also aircraft industries, is the fifth largest town of the U.S.A., the third and the fourth being Los Angeles and Philadelphia.
Philadelphia ranks fourth in industrial output after New York Chicago and Detroit. New Orleans is the largest port town of the south.
San Francisco is the largest port on the Pacific coast and it is the most famous terminal of the trans-continental railway lines on the west coast.
New York is the greatest American city. It is the largest port of the country and handles by far the largest proportion of its foreign trade and commerce, with its total population of about 80 lakhs to support. It has become an important industrial centre. The metropolitan New York with suburbs has a population of 136 lakhs. Its industries are of varied character catering to the needs of the city dwellers.
Also U.S.A. has 9.1 million square kilometer of land with population of 238.7 million in 1986 and its capital is Washington (D.C).
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