Indonesia is the most populous Muslim-majority nation in the world and the fourth most populous overall.
Indonesia's population is 240 million, its land area 735,000 square miles (the size of Mexico).
Indonesia is made of more than 18,000 islands, of which about 6,000 are inhabited. The capital is Jakarta, on Java Island, which hosts half of Indonesia's population.
Indonesia is located across tectonic plates and is frequently struck by earthquakes and tsunamis. Indonesia also has several volcanoes, the most famous being Krakatau (Krakatoa). Krakatoa's 1883 eruption was one of the most powerful volcanic explosions in modern times.
Travel to Indonesia offers cultural and natural rewards. There are strong contrasts between Java, the world's most populous island, and Irian Jaya — the western half of the island of New Guinea, one of the remotest places on earth. In-between, Bali is the main tourist travel destination of Indonesia.
Borneo, Java, Bali, Celebes and New Guinea are some of the islands of Indonesia. Java and Sumatra have some active volcanoes too. It has an area of 1904345 sq. km. It is the largest archipelago in the world. Rainfall is abundant though temperatures vary. 75 to 150 inches rainfall is common. Java is the main economic centre. It produces rubber, sugarcane, tobacco and sisal are produced. Coffee is produced for export purpose. Spices are produced both for local consumption and export. Indonesia ranks first in producing rice in the south east Asia. Maize is produced in the lowlands as well as elevated lands. Petroleum in Indonesia is produced mainly in the east Java, Coal, bauxite, nickel are mined. Sugar, mills rubber mills, coconut oil plants, petroleum refineries have been established. Surabaya is good port. Palembang in Sumatra also serves as port. Medan is a centre or plantation.
Java is economically important. Agricultural productivity is high because of fertile volcanic soil. It enjoys modified equatorial climate. More than 50% is cultivable land. Double-cropped rice lands are irrigated. Dry paddy accounts for one-sixth of total crops of the island. Other important crops are maize, tapioca as food crops coconut, sugarcane, pepper, ground-nut, tobacco, rubber, coffee and tea as cash crops. Cotton textiles, food processing (refining sugar, preparation of starch from tapioca) and cottage industries are widespread. Land suitability for agriculture in terms of relief, drainage, irrigation and soil fertility is the deciding factor for population distribution. The northern alluvial plain around Djakarta, Cheribon, Surabaya, and volcanic basin of Jog Jakarta are densely populated areas of Java. Djakarta is the capital of Indonesia.
Sumatra: The Intermittent western coastal plain is small and swampy. Volcanoes of the mountains are still active. Volcanic soil is acidic and less fertile than in Java. The intermontane basins are rift valleys occupied by lakes. Lake Toba is a crater lake, largest in Indonesia. The north eastern foothill zone is economically important because of mineral deposits. The eastern coastal plain covering two-third of Sumatra has river alluvium forming a part of Sunda-shelf where the mangrove swamps are extensive. All the three agricultural systems exist in this island. Wet paddy, maize and vegetables by subsistence farming, coffee, tea, tobacco, coconut, pepper and kapok as cash crops, by cultivation in small holdings, are important products. Around Medan and Belawan (northern and north eastern), plantation agriculture produces tea, oil palm and sisal replacing rubber. Coffee is of declining importance. Two-thirds of Indonesian oil production is from Medan.
Isolated pockets, of thickly populated region are Acheh coast and Oostkust in the north, the Bukit Tinggi and the Padang area, around Palembang and the Lampoenga coast in the south.