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Turkey is now a relatively small country, about three times the size of Great Britain.


Of her once vast possessions there alone remain to her:

  • (a) the peninsula of Asia Minor and
  • (b) her small European territory. But since Turkey became a republic in 1923 her progress has been rapid. Turkey (in Asia) may be divided into
  • (1) the Plateau margined by fold mountains and
  • (2) the Coastal Plains

  • (1) The Plateau rises from 3,000 feet in the west to 6,000 feet in the Armenian and Kurdistan Highlands. The rivers, flowing in deep gorges, are useless for navigation and difficult to dam for irrigation, though, near Ankara, the Culuk Dam has been built to store water for this purpose and for power. The famous Angora (Ankara) goats yield a fine curly wool, called mohair, which is an important export.
  • (2) The Coastal Plains, nowhere very wide, margin the Black, Aegean, and Mediterranean Seas. The Black Sea slopes of the Pontic Mountains are 'forested, the hazel bushes yielding nuts for exports. Cereals and figs are grown on the plains.

    It is a mountainous country with Mount Ararat as the main relief feature. Its area is 780575 sq. km. It is republic and its capital is Ankara. Its old capital was known as Constantinopel now known as Istanbul. The language of the country is Turkish. The coastal areas have extensive cultivation. In the Anatolian plateau where rainfall is between 12 to 20 inches wheat and barley are produced. In the coastal plains wheat, barley cotton, tobacco, hazelnut, grapes, olive and figs are produced. Wool is produced from the famous Angora goat. Textile, iron and steel industries have given this country an industrial character. It is the most industrially advanced country in whole South West Asia. Turkey is the most modernized country as well with forward looking western attitude. Though the 'follower of Islam, it is not Arab country and has not the rigid fundamentalism as is seen elsewhere: This has been possible under the dynamic and pragmatic personality and leadership of Ataturk. The major exports of the country are tobacco, raisins, olives and olive oil. Main minerals found in the country are chromium, coal, iron, copper and petroleum.

    Turkey occupies a strategic position linking Europe and Asia. Agriculture supports about 64% of the population. It is the world's second largest producer of sultana raisins. Sheep and cattle abound on the plateau of Anatolia. Since the climate of Anatolia is similar to that of Russian Steppe, Angora goats dominate the economics activity. They are famous for their silky, mohair. The Izmir valley is an important economic zone (both agricultural and industrial). Another region is southern section. It is acting as the hinterland of Izmir. About 70% of products are from the forest.

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