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Small is beautiful, Attractions for Industry, Influence of the Church, Shot That Started a War, Magnificent Capital City, Vienna, Kitzbuhel, Lower Austria, Linz, Salzburg, Graz|
Linz, Salzburg, Graz
The country's third largest city and capital of Upper Austria, 160 km (100 miles) west to Vienna. Straddling the Danube, Linz has been an important river port and trading centre since the middle ages. In 1939, Herman Goering, the head of Nazi Germany's Luftwaffe (air force), established a major steelworks in the city - which resulted in its being heavily bombed in the Second World War. As well as iron and steel, Linz now manufactures chemicals, textiles, tobacco, and fertilizers. Adolf Hitler, the German dictator spent his early schooldays in Linz.
Linz, Salzburg, Graz
Population 201 500
1. Mountainous central state renowned for its Alpine spas and resorts, which attract thousands of tourists each year. At one time an independent state ruled by prince archbishops, Salzburg became part of Austria in 1816, after the Napoleonic Wars. It is noted for its salt deposits and its iron, copper and gold mines.
2. Capital of Salzburg state, on the Salzach river, 255 km (160 miles) west of Vienna. It was the birthplace in 1756 of the composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and a festival is held in his honor each August. Mozart was born in the old town, and his house is now a major tourist attraction.
The city, which lies between two high and craggy hills, was built by successive bishops in the 16th and 17th centuries. Its narrow streets include the Getreidegasse, lined with six-storey buildings, each bearing a wrought-iron shop sign depicting its wares. The city was badly bombed during the Second World War, and almost half of it was rebuilt. Among its older buildings are the 17th-century cathedral and an 11th-century castle.
Population (province) 441 840; (city) 140 000
The country's second largest city and provincial capital of Styria, 140 km (87 miles) south-west to Vienna. Graz grew up as a settlement on the trade route from Italy to Hungary, and became a fortress town in the 12th century, guarding the northern route through the Alpine foothills. It has an 11th century castle, a 15th century Gothic cathedral and a 17th century arsenal. Its manufactures include paper, shoes, clothing and chemicals. There are also steel foundries, ironworks and railway workshops. The German astronomer Johannes Kepler, whose work confirmed that the planets revolve around the sun, lived in Graz from 1594 to 1600.
Population 243 000