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Delta

Delta

When a river meets a lake or sea, it deposits its sediment at the meeting point. The landform that is formed due to the deposition is called a delta.

Delta ( Δ ) is a Greek alphabet letter and the deposition of a river at the meeting place between it and the lake or sea resembles the letter delta. All the deltas are not of this type. Deltas can be divided into the following types on the basis of its formation.



(1) Arcuate Delta. It resembles a fan. The sand gravels, etc., which the river deposits is loose. The distributaries of the river are not stationary but go on shifting across the sediment. The distributaries of the river are shallow and the water goes on seeping. Arcuate deltas have been built by the Nile, the Po, the Hwong Ho, the Rhine, the Tiber, the Gangs, the Sindh, the Mahanadi, the Irawaddy, the Mekong, etc.



(2) Bird's-foot Delta. In these deltas, the sediment deposited is composed of those fine particles, which are received from the limestone rock. These fine particles are also found to be dissolved in water. Due to these fine particles the bottoms of the delta turn non-porous and the seepage of water down the bottom stops. As a consequence, the water of the rivers flows on the surface in the shape of some distributors. Those distributaries appear extended like the foot of a bird. The Mississippi delta is a good example of this type of delta.

(3) Estuarine Filling Delta. Many times the mouth of a river is submerged under water. The river begins to fill the mouth with its sediment. When the mouth is filled up with the sediment. the river passes over it in the form of a few distributors. Mud bars, marshes extensive plains, etc., are found in it The Mackenzie, the Elb, the Hudson, etc., have similar deltas.

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