Human Evolution

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Human Evolution

Prehistoric tools

The Pleistocene period is noted for glacial and interglacial fluctuation of plants, animal and early man had to adjust to the slow but drastic change of their habitat. The anatomy evolution of homo sapiens is not alone created cultural evolution, but speech, tool and fire, the tripod of culture were responsible. Language enabled him to communicate his thoughts. His accumulated experience reflected in the improvement and means of thought exchange. Man is a habitual toolmaker. The tool used as the supplement for the hands and teeth. The stone implements, pointed shafts for spears and wooden clubs were his early tools. Man's use of fire in the early stage was for his protection and later for cooking the meat. This made the women and children tied to the home base while the men became the hunters. This change in the system of their work marked the phase of division of labour and sharing the food. The early men according to their habitat emerged as the hunters in the sub polar environments and as the food gatherers in the tropical forests. The late Paleolithic culture marks the period of the development of man specialized in the techniques of hunting, fishing and gathering stones and bones. This period is roughly 15,000-25,000 years old. The Neolithic culture is marked by domestication of plant and animals. The early agriculture is primitive and abandoning. The dawn of civilization is characterized by the emergence of subsistence agriculture in the river valleys.

The art of pottery and weaving would have been known to the early farming communities. The animals were domesticated as the beast of burden and as the draught animals. The assured supply of food for population created the first urban centre. The continuous process of changes had led to economic, social and political consequence. The advancement in canal irrigation, use of metals (Copper, silver, silver gold, and iron) use of alphabet constituted the river valley civilization. The ancient civilization of the America also revealed the evidences of sedentary village communities. The development of writing was the beginning of the emergence of mathematics astronomy and calendar in the Asiatic centres.

The last two centuries have experienced an increase in productivity, wide use of metals, development the art of mining, and oil exploration. Recent scientific progress based on the knowledge derived from land and sea expeditions is the landmark of industrial revolution. The present century is designated as the second industrial revolution. In the field of agriculture domestication of a variety of plants, invention of new varieties and application of complex categorized technique in cultivation are making the present era.

The field of transport has been marked by space travel and travel to the remote areas. The economic disparity has multiplied thus creating the distinguished development block such as developed, developing and under-developed nations. The knowledge of expression and language development denote the complex system of thought, process, exchange of ideas and the quickness in transmission. The cultural evolution of the present era marks the materialistic welfare system with the complex spiritual, social, political and philosophical thinking. Recent stage therefore shows the whole world as one realm where international cooperation is the factor of control.

Next: Human Migration

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