Mechanical and Electrical Industries
These include manufacture of machine tools and machinery of various kinds, both electrical and non-electrical. The basic requirement is the availability of iron and steel and other metals like copper and aluminium. Technical skill is also a basic requirement.
Automobile industry. Automobiles are being used widely for personal transport in the developed countries like USA and Western Europe. Japan is the world's leading manufacturer of all kinds of automobiles. The USA is second largest manufacturer and has the largest number of automobiles in use and also per capita. The other major world producers are West Germany, France, Russia and Canada. The major producers are also the major exporters of all types of automobiles.
About one-third of world's automobiles are manufactured in U.S.A. The original automobile factories were small and some of the more modern are not large. Some of the greatest automobile manufacturers produce practically everything they require, but not in one establishment. Indeed, the United States automobile manufacturing is a well-organized industry of complex manufactures and their integration on favorable sites.
The industry is particularly conspicuous in the lower Lake region. The region includes South Michigan, North Indiana and Ohio. The larger part of the production comes from South Michigan. One fourth of nation's total produced in the city of Detroit alone. The advantages of this area are the ease of assembling iron-ore, fuel, manufactured steel and other component materials, and the excellent railways, roads and water routes for the distribution of vehicles in both partially and completely assembled forms.
Electrical Machinery: New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, Boston, Los Angeles, Pittsburgh, Milwaukee etc. are centres of electrical machinery production in USA
Non-electrical Machinery: Chicago, New York, Detroit, Los Angeles, Milwaukee, Philadelphia, Cleveland, Dayton, Boston, Pittsburgh, Buffalo, Cincinnati and Moline are centres of non-electrical machinery production.
Farm Machinery: Highly concentrated in the Mid West state of Illinois.
Locomotives: Pennsylvania, New York, Illinois and Ohio States make most of locomotives.
Centres: Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Scranton, Schenectady Lima (Ohio) and La Grange (Illinois).
Railway Car, Coach and Wagon: Most of these are manufactured in the states of Illinois, Pennsylvania, Indiana, Missouri, New York and Ohio.
Centres: Chicago, Pullman (III), St. Lotus (Missouri); Berwick, Butler and Mckees Rocks (Penn.).
Engineering Centres of Great Britain: Engineering industries get their raw materials from steel plants. Steel is a pure raw material. Provided there is easy access to coal, they are localized either in the market or in the iron and steel producing areas.
Agricultural machinery is produced in the following towns:
(a) Towns in iron and steel areas-Sheffield's, Leeds, Preston, Derby, Darlington.
(b) Market towns-Ipswich, Bedford, Lincoln, Rochester, Chelmsford, Cambridge, Norwich.
Textile Machinery: British textile machinery is world famous. It is one of the most important engineering industries of the country. Most of the towns engaged in this branch of work are in the great textile manufacturing areas. Important centres are Manchester, Oldham, Bolton, Rochdale, Blackburn, Burnley, Leeds, Haddersfield, Bradford, Nottingham, Glasgow.
Electrical machinery: This industry is found in almost every part of the country, but important centres are in the great industrial areas, which supply local requirements. London, Manchester and Birmingham are important centres.
Automobiles and Bicycles: London and suburbs Birmingham, Coventry and Oxford, are centres of automobiles and bicycles.
Locomotives are produced at Swindon, Crewe, Derby, Darlington and Ashford.
Important Engineering Centres in Russia: The engineering industry in Russia has not only expanded, it has grown to an enormous size. Every metallurgical region ore very industrial district has a host of engineering industries. A few of the most important centres are mentioned below.
Locomotives: Voroshilovgrad, Donetsk, Kharkov, Gorky, Orsk (Ural).
Railway Cars and Wagons: Nizhni Tagil (Ural)
Machine-Building: Moscow, St Petersburg, Kharkov, Kramatorsk (the Donetz Basin), Sverdlovsk (the Urals).
Agricultural Machinery: Kharkov, Odessa, Volgograd, Rostoy, Saratoy, Chelyabinsk.
Automobiles: Moscow, Gorky, Yeroslayl, St Petersburg, Kharkoy, Volgograd.
Shipbuilding: St Petersburg, Vladivostok.
In Ukraine: Railway Cars and Wagons - Dniepro Petroask
Next: North American industrial regions