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Europe Textile Industry
Continental Europe: The cotton mills of Europe are mostly found in North-eastern France, in the Rhine valley towns of Germany, Holland and Belgium, in the Swiss plateau and in North Italy. Europe has more spindles than Great Britain. Europe usually produces coarser textiles by importing raw cotton largely from the USA, India, Egypt, Sudan and Brazil. Bremen in Germany, Le Havre in France, Genoa in Italy and Barcelona in Spain are the cotton importing ports.
France: The cotton textile industry is established in three areas, namely,
(a) on the Northern coal-field, specially at Lille,
(b) in and around Rouen near the port of Le Havre,
(c) in the Vosges area at Nancy, Belfort, Mulhouse and Colmar.
Germany: The industry has developed in Ruhr coalfield area notably at Barmen, Elberfeld and Gladbach. Also in former East Germany: on the Saxon coalfield notably at Chemnitz and Zwickau.
Italy: The industry is well established in the Po valley towns of North Italy, notably at Milan, Como and Bergamo. Hydroelectricity supplies the power. Coarse textiles are exported to South American countries.
Switzerland: Cotton mills using hydro-electricity are found on the plateau. Important centres are Zurich, Aargau, St. Gallen and Glarus.
Belgium: At Ghent and Brussels
Spain: At Barcelona.
Poland: In the city of Lodz (known as 'little Manchester').
Russia. Before the Revolution, the cotton mill industry was chiefly localized in Moscow, Ivanovo and to a lesser extent in St Petersburg. About half of the raw cotton came from the USA and half again from the colonial lands to Trans-Caucasia and Central Asia.
In spite of these new developments, the former area of the Central Industrial Region with Moscow and Ivanovo districts continues to be the main producer of cotton textile. The old mills have been modernized and expanded and many new ones have been started. Mills are run by electricity, derived from running water or from local coal. Local consumer's market, excellent transportation facilities and humidity are the advantages of this area. Cotton comes from Central Asia.
Ivanovo, the Manchester of Russia, is the most important cotton spinning and weaving centre of the country. A ring of cotton mill towns has developed around Ivanovo.
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