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Australia, Canada and Brazil Australia is well endowed with goal but iron-ore reserve is not large and its domestic market is also limited. However, the country has developed steel plants at Newcastle and Port-Kembla along the coast of New South Wales. The plants utilize high grade coal from nearby mines. They obtain rich iron-ore from the Iron Knob fields in South Australia. Iron-ore is transported cheaply by ocean-vessels through the port of Whyalla. A blast furnace for pig-iron has also been developed at Whyalla where coal is brought by vessels on their return journey from Newcastle. The country produces about 8 million tons of steel.
Canada has two steel making districts. In Cape Breton Island of Nova Scotia, a steel centre has developed, with its easy access to raw materials. Iron ore is obtained cheaply by water from the famous Wabana deposit of Newfoundland. Limestone also comes from Newfoundland. Excellent coal is available locally within a few miles from the plant site. The finished products of centre find a ready market in cities of the upper St. Lawrence Valley. Canada produced 16 million metric tons of steel in 1985
Brazil has a huge heap of high grade iron-ore in Minas Gerais, but is poor in coking coal supplies. Yet, the Brazilian Government is particularly keen to develop iron and steel manufacturing in the country. Under tariff protection a steel plant has been developed at Volta Redondo, situated between Rio-de-Janeiro and Sao Paulo. Iron-ore mining has been developed at Itabira. Limestone and manganese are also obtained from the north. Brazil produced 12 million tonnes of steel in 1985.
The Ukraine: The foremost iron and steel area of the former Soviet Union lies in the south eastern Ukraine including Crimea and the north shore of the Sea of Azov. Various factors have helped the growth of iron and steel industry in this area.
(i) Coking coal is available from the huge coal deposits of the Donetz basin.
(ii) Iron-ore comes from the famous Krivoi Rog ore deposits.
(iii) The manganese deposit of Nikopol and the deposits of limestone are in this area
(iv) A network of railways together with rivers like the Dnieper, Donetz and Don and also the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea presents unique opportunities for easy transportation of raw materials and finished goods.
(v) A dense population with engineering and various other industries provides the market. The area has also access to the market of Moscow and St Petersburg industrial regions.
Steel plants of the Ukraine produce over half of nation's pig and steel. They meet enormous local requirements for engineering industries. A large quantity of pig and steel is also shipped to Moscow and St Petersburg industrial regions.
The locations of steel centres in the Ukraine resemble those of Pittsburgh district and the Lake Shore area in the U.S.A. The Donetz basin steel towns represent those of the Pittsburgh district. The steel plants of Kerch and Krivoi Rog correspond to those of Duluth and Lake Superior areas.
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