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USA Steel 2
3. Middle Atlantic Sea Board: Harrisburg, Bethlehem, Steelton, Morrisville in East Pennsylvania and Baltimore in Maryland are the remarkable steel centres of middle Atlantic Coastal area. But the Baltimore plant, with an annual production capacity of about 9 million tones of steel, is the largest one of this area (and probably of the world). The plant is located at Sparrows-Point, 19 Kms downstream from Baltimore on the river Patapsco near its entry into the Cheapsacke Bay.
Coal and limestone are brought to these centres from East Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Scrap metal is collected from the great industrial market of the east.
The Atlantic Coast centres have the advantage of a large local market stretching from Boston to Richmond. Specialized and high-grade steel goods are produced in these centres arid they enjoy special advantages for shipment of heavy steel products to the Gulf and Pacific coast areas of the country and to foreign markets. About 13 per cent of country's steel is produced in this area.
4. Steel Centres in the South: (a) North Alabama. Steel making has developed at Birmingham. This is the only area in the United States where iron ore, limestone and various grades of coal are found in close proximity. Coal mines are within a few kilometers from Birmingham. Both iron-ore and limestone are available in the nearby Red Mountain. Birmingham imports quite a large quantity of high grade iron-ore from Venezuela.
(b) Texas: Steel plants are located at Lone Star and at the Gulf port of Houston. These are wartime creations. They depend on local iron-ore, supplemented by imports. The growing industries of the Gulf coast and of the south-west provide the market.
Great Britain: Though a pioneer in the manufacture of steel, Great Britain has been surpassed in steel making by the United States, Germany, Russia, Japan, China, Italy and France in recent years.
About 85 per cent of the domestic ore is mined in the Cleveland hills of the north-eastern England and the Midland fields along the south-eastern flank of the Pennine Mountains. Original locations of iron and steel plants were based on the availability of coal and iron in the same area. The iron-ore deposits in coal mining areas have been gradually exhausted. More than half of all iron-ore, now smelted in Great Britain, comes from foreign countries chiefly from Spain, Sweden and North Africa. Two-thirds of the pig is obtained from Western Europe and the remainder from India. Three-fourths of all scrap imports are obtained from the United States.
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