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African Migration, African & Oriental Realms, Australian, New Zealand & Communist Realms, Cultural Realms, Demographic Cycle, Distribution of Population, Economic and Cultural Factors, European & American Realms, European Migration, Geographical Factors, Geographical Factors (2), Population Growth Causes, Population Growth, High Density Areas, House types, Low Density Areas, Periods of Migration, International Migrations, Races, Racial Criteria 1, Racial Criteria 2, Racial Criteria 3, Racial Distribution 1, Racial Distribution 2, Racial Distribution 3, Refugees, Human Settlements, Social Factors|
African migration took place when they were first brought to the Caribbean islands. They went there in the early decades of 17th century and also settled in the coastal eastern North America. These forced Africans going to Caribbean islands and Eastern North America were among the first settlers in Americas. Though exact number of Africans forced to leave their homes is not known but the estimated number is about 12 to 30 millions. During this period the population of America was meagre but with the enormous shift in African population it became sizable but the slave Africans exceeded the white population five or six times.
It is the enormous flow of European immigration in North America particularly in U.S.A. the population complexion and ratio changed. The concentration of Africans in bondage was in the Caribbean and Northern and Eastern South America. The result is that the descendants of those slave Africans form the majority in many Caribbean countries. But it is not the case in U.S.A. Africans who were forced to migrate had to suffer a lot. Their families were ruined and in the countries they migrated they had to suffer untold miseries and sufferings. Irreparable loss was done to them.
Forced Migrations - Forced migrations also have taken place in our human history. Certain undesirable elements such as convicts and dacoits were deported to America and Australia. Forced migrations at present are not nowadays in the form of slavery, bonded labour and convicts; but in the 20th century, a golden period of civilization, forced migration in different forms were taking place. Expulsion of Asians from Uganda and Kenya, exodus of Hindus numbering about 10,000,00 from Pakistan in 1947 and 400,000 Muslims from India due to partition of India. As a result of religious and ideological differences, Palestinian exodus as a consequence of the formation of Israel as a new country, ouster of Germans from the East Germany as a result of Second World War, an 80,000 refugees in whole of Europe suffering from the onslaught and wrath of war are definitely forced migrations. Natural catastrophes also caused forced migration. Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions forced the population of a particular region to move to a safer region
There are other modes of migrations as well such as regional migrations and seasonal migrations, but these are not permanent in nature. Internal migrations also take place and also the free migrations.
One aspect of International migration in modern times is the movement of highly qualified or skilled people as opposed to the poor in search of land or work. Skilled workers move to find better salaries and better jobs though they could be employed at home. Thus Asian doctors and nurses choose to work in the West, while British doctors and nurses migrate to the U.S.A. in search of better conditions. This type of migration is often called the Brain drain since it takes well-qualified people valuable to the community out of the country.
Short-term migration to foreign countries is very much on the increase today. Tourism is a constantly expanding industry and millions of holidaymakers, especially from North America, Europe and Japan, now spend holidays abroad. This is a reflection of high standards of living and the advances made in cheap air travel. Short-term migration, either on holiday or professional visits, or short-term contracts of work, help to introduce people to conditions in other countries and may lead to more permanent migration. Some British people who have spent holidays in Spain subsequently buy houses there, when they retire, encouraged by the lower costs of living and the wanner climate.
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