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Fishing areas 2
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D: Northeast Pacific (The western coasts of North America). The area extends from Alaska to California and is noted for salmon, pilchard and tuna fisheries. Halibut and other species are also caught. The value of the catch in U.S.A exceeds 65 million dollars annually. The Canadian catch was also of the same value. California has developed fish canning. The important canning items are tuna, sardines and mackerel. The deep water on the continental shelf off Alaska and British Columbia are the best halibut-fishing source of the world.
Fish canning is highly important in the USA, Japan, Canada U.K, Netherlands and Germany.
Fresh-water fisheries are located in large lakes and river systems near areas of dense population. The production of fisheries of fresh-water is not so large like seawater fisheries. In most cases, subsistence fishing is practiced in the fresh-water whereas commercial fishing has developed in the seawater.
Fresh-Water fisheries of the Great Lakes. A well-organized commercial fishing industry has developed on the shores of the Great lakes. The most common species caught in the Lakes include lake herring, trout, yellow pike, white fish yellow perch, blue pike and carp.
Salmon fisheries of the Northern Pacific Rivers. Fishing extends from Oregon to northern Japan through Washington, British Columbia, Alaska, Siberia and Sakhalin. Salmon of five different species are caught in large numbers in the rivers with the help of gill nets trawlers.
Coastal fisheries : The coastal fishing depends on density of population of adjacent lands, available means of transport, the number and location of shallow coastal indentations and the variety of fish. Coastal fishing is discussed under two heads:
1 Low-latitude and middle-latitude coastal fisheries.
2 Open-sea fisheries
There are three important areas, (1) European North Atlantic from northern Spain to the White Sea in northern Russia, (2) American North Atlantic from southern New England to northern Labrador, (3) Asian Pacific from southern China to northern Kamchatka.
More than 3 million men are engaged in fishing in these waters. The importance of fishing in these areas is due to both physical and economic factors
Physical factors : (1) The existence of banks in the shallow seas favors the growth of fish.
(2) Coastline. Long coastline with indentations provides bases for fishing operations.
(3) Depth and temperature of water. Depth and temperature of waters affect directly the variety and abundance of fish, which are in most cases found within a depth of 600 ft. Mixing of waters of different temperatures favors the growth of fish as plankton is plentiful there.
(4) Cool climate. In colder regions fishing is developed as fish preservation is easier.
Next: Fishing economy