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Conifer Forests 2

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Conifer Forests 2 (continued from this page)

Conifer

U.S.A.: The USA have about only one-third of their total area under coniferous forests. Paper and wood pulp industries are located in the northeast and in the western part of the USA. In 1985 they produced 287 million cubic meters of softwood timber.

Canada: In Canada, the coniferous forests are found in British Columbia and Quebec. They spread in a broad belt from west to east and end in Newfoundland. The greatest density occurs in the southern margin. Canada is second in paper production and first in the production and export of newsprint. In 1985 she produced about 113 million cubic meters of softwood. British Columbia, Northern Prairie provinces, Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick have developed lumber industry based on these forests.



Russia has about 45.3 per cent of the world's total conifers. About 580 million hectares of land are under Taiga. The largest forest areas are 515 million hectares in the Asiatic parts of the country. The forest contains trees like pine, fir, larch and spruce, which are used for timber, papermaking and manufacture of cellulose.

Sweden: More than 56 per cent of the country's land areas are covered with forests. The total amount of wood is estimated at 2100 million cubic meters. She is the best timber producing country. About 40 per cent of her exports consist of forest products. The output of timber in 1985 amounted to 46 million cubic meters solid volume, of which coniferous timber was 18.5 million cubic meters and pulpwood 19.5 million cubic meters.



Norway: 25 per cent of her total land area is under such forests. About 81 per cent are pine trees. Forest produces constitute the most important item (about 34 per cent) of exports. She produces wood pulp, paper, newsprint, cellulose, cardboard, etc. from the softwood of coniferous forests.

Finland: 60 percent of her total area is covered with forests. Wood pulp and paper are major products.

Asia: In the northern parts of Manchuria, China, Japan and on the Himalayan Kashmir and Darjeeling, Shillong conifers are found.

Lumbering: It is one of the important activities of man to obtain timber and wood pulp from the forests. It is carried on in many parts of the world. The development of lumbering depends upon several factors such as nature of forests the relief, accessibility, availability of cheap power etc. Lumbering has developed well in the temperate zone especially in the coniferous regions. This can be easily understood from the fact that the conifers satisfy nearly 80% of the timber needs of the world. The very different nature of the forests in the different climatic zones means that the techniques of extraction, the economics of exploitation and the degree of mechanization vary greatly. Coniferous forests form only about a third of the world's total forest area but contribute half of the total wood and the third of the industrial output.

Lumbering supplies the most important forest product, i.e. wood in the form of logs, planks, shook, etc. Due to variation in the environmental factors, i.e. nature of the forest, relief of land, transport facilities, supply of the labour, etc. lumbering is carried on various forms. Trade has developed-tropical hardwoods going to cool lands and their softwoods coming to tropical lands.



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