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Lumbering in the Temperate Forests 2
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Oil extraction: The extraction of eucalyptus oil and olive oil from the eucalyptus and olive trees respectively in the Mediterranean lands is also important. From the pine forests of lower middle latitude tar, pitch and turpentine are extracted and collected by tapping. In USA the sandy belt of pine trees of South Carolina, Georgia and Alabama produces more than 50 per cent of the world's output of turpentine and rosin. Turpentine is used for paints and varnishes and rosin is used in the manufacture of soap, paper coverings, chemicals and paints. The pine plantations of Landes on the shores of Bay of Biscay in southwestern France Is the next important producer of turpentine oil.
Pacific Coast of North America. The area extending from Alaska to California along the coastal mountain ranges are now the leading source of supply of timber to Canada and the USA Valuable species are coniferous softwoods including Douglas fir of 80 meters height. It supplies about 20 per cent of the total timber cut of U.SA The Caterpillar tractor is employed to carry logs to rail or road heads. Finally the logs are taken to large sawmills on the coastal areas by motor or railways. The coast being broken saw mills are within a few miles of lumbering camps. The mills are all equipped with modern machines and have access to rail as well as water transportation.
Southern U.S.A (Pine belt): Southern USA ranks next to Pacific coast with regard to lumbering. Pine is the most important species of lumber. At present 25 per cent of U.S. needs is supplied by the region comprising of South Carolina, Georgia and Alabama. Paper, rayon and plastic industries have developed in this region.
New England: Dense forests of New England played a significant part in a near lie era. Forest of New England supply timber and pulp for paper. White pine, hemlock, spruce, fir and maple constitute the timber supply. They were the bas is of a rich lumber industry which began exporting ship building timber as early as 1650; but the virgin timber was largely logged off before the end of the 19th century. Today important pulp and paper industry use small second growth trees.
Canadian and Alaskan Taiga: A large area extending from the Rockies to eastern Newfoundland and Nova Scotia Is an important source of timber supply. Most of the better timber in the southern portion of the Canadian coniferous forests has been cut. Five eastern provinces still supply nearly half of Canada's lumber production. Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia have the largest annual timber cut.
Felling of trees is usually done in the autumn. The timber areas have long and cold winters. The snow on the surface of soil helps in removing logs in winter with horses or tractors to the streams or lakes, where they are heaped up till the spring comes. With the advent of spring the snow melts and transportation is better done. Railways are also used. The provinces of Quebec and Ontario rank first as pulp and paper producers but the industry has also established itself on the west coast near the extensive forests of British Columbia. Smaller quantities of timber are produced in Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Manitoba.
Central Europe: Coniferous trees that grow on poor, rocky, sandy or in cool areas of central Europe are not subject to heavy cuts. Attempts are being made to prevent excessive cutting. The main areas lie in the Pyrenees, the Alps, in the mountains along the middle of Rhine valley. Therefore Europe has to depend on imports. Government managed forests of Europe are an excellent investment. They supply firewood and timber.
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