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- (b) Tobacco in Europe. Most of the European nations are engaged in the production of tobacco, but the major areas of production lies in Russia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, Germany, Italy and France. Commercial tobacco farming in the Balkan states and European and Asiatic Turkey is centuries old.
- (c) The tobacco in Algeria was initiated by its erstwhile French colonialists. Presently tobacco growing has become an important activity in Rhodesia, Zambia and Malawi where the sandy soils, warm summers of 20°C to 25°C temperatures, and cheap labour favor the production.
- (d) The vast continent of Asia is a large producer of tobacco accounting for 45% of the world's output. As many as 30 countries are engaged in the production of tobacco, but the four countries China, India, Japan, and Turkey together represent 32% of the world's production. China is by far the largest producer of tobacco in the world.
China grows tobacco all over the arable farming region but the major areas of concentration are Hunan and Kweichow, which are noted for excellent quality.
In Indonesia and in the Philippine island, high quality cigar filler and wrapper leaf are produced for export. Tobaccos of this regions are highly reputed for their excellent quality and are an important export crop mainly destined to the United States, Spain and Japan. Both Java and Sumatra provide the principal seat of tobacco culture in Indonesia.
- (e) Within the Central American region Cuba is neither a great producer nor a large exporter but she owes her international reputation to the high quality of cigar filler and wrapper leaf that she produces. Though fairly well distributed greatest tobacco region of Cuba is located in the sandy rolling plains of south western Pinar del Rio where the whole economic life of the people is associated with tobacco culture. Destined almost entirely for the export market, the tobacco is cultivated on intensive commercial basis. The tobacco production in Puerto Rico and Dominican Republic resembles that of Pinar del Rio of Cuba in many respect. The bulk of exports are directed to the United States.
- (f) The tobacco producing countries of South America consist of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Equador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela. Of these countries Brazil alone produces 59% of the South American tobacco. The tobacco region of Brazil runs along the eastern coast. Argentina is only a poor second to Brazil with 20% of the South American output. Still poorer third is Colombia with only 9%. Therefore, 88% of the tobacco of South America comes from the three countries of Brazil, Argentina and Colombia.
World trade. U.K., Holland, Belgium Germany, Spain and U.S.A are the principal importers of tobacco. The first five countries take about 28 p.c., 6 p.c. respectively of total tobacco imports. U.S.A. Dominican Republic and Cuba export about 45 p.c. and 3 p.c. respectively of total exports. India handles about 8 p.c. of world's trade in tobacco, In 1988, U.S.A., India, Turkey, Rhodesia and Brazil exported 240 thousand metric tons, 56 thousand metric tonnes 65 thousand metric tonnes, 63 thousand metric and 30 thousand metric tonnes of raw tobacco. The U.K. and West Germany took 140 thousand metric and 80 thousand metric tonnes.
Two varieties of tobacco are generally recognized in India. NICOTINA TABACUM and NICOTINA RUSTICA. Of these the former is more important for export and the manufacture of cigarettes and cigars in India. NICOTINA RUSTICA is demanded for hookkah, chewing and snuff. Though 90% of India's tobacco is NICOTINA TABACUM, the top grade Virginia type accounts for only 34%. The Virginia tobacco is in great demand in the international market. About 30% of the tobacco is used in making cigars and cheroots, 20% in bidi, 25% in cigarettes and the rest in chewing and for hookah.
Two-thirds of the total acreage are confined to Guntur. Andhra Pradesh is noted for Virginia tobacco for cigarette, cigar tobacco cheroot tobacco, chewing tobacco and snuff.
Gujarat grows approximately 30% of India's tobacco from only 20% of the tobacco acreage.