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Racial Criteria 2
D. Blood Groups. Throughout the world, people can be divided into four types according to the kind of substances, their red blood cells contain A, B, AB and 0. Every person can be placed in one of four group. We find that genes responsible for these groups are present through out the world, although the proportions of these different genes differ somewhat from region and from race to race
A new approach to the study of human population is provided by the geographical distribution of the Blood groups. It was discovered by Karl Land Stenier in 1900, that there were definite substances of the serum of some bloods that would agglutinate of clump the cells of certain other bloods. It was further shown that the men can be classified according to particular properties of their blood into four clear cut groups which were represented by the Roman figures I, II, III, IV but these groups are now commonly called 0, A, B, AB, respectively. The blood group to which a person belongs can easily be determined by a competent investigator and it remains the same from birth to death regardless of the condition in which the individual lives. It might seem that mankind could be divided into four races, corresponding to the blood types. But this is not possible at all because, parents and children as well as brothers and sister often have bloods of different types.
E. Stature - Topinard's classification of stature, which is generally accepted, comprises four groups.
(i) Tall stature 170 cm. and over.
(ii) Above the average 165 cm. and under 170 cm.
(iii) Below the average 160 cm. and under 165 cm.
(vi) Small stature under 160 cm.
Stature is the largest bodily measurement and represents the sum of the measurements of all the body segments. It is thus no matter for surprise that it varies more widely than almost any other measurement and is readily subject to modification by environmental conditions. Those people who are termed pygmies are not over 148 cm high. Groups classified as short are between 148 cm and 158 cm. Those termed medium stature are between 158 cm and 167.6 cm, tall statured between 170 to 172 cm and those very tall are over 172 cm. Stature, cannot however, be taken as a general criteria of race although in certain cases, it is a good test. For instance, to distinguish the tall Patagonian from the stunted Bushmen.
F. Nasal Index - Nasal index is one of the best tests for racial distinction. The nasal index is simply the relation of the breadth of the nose to its height.
This means of classifying races is widely used and claimed by some to be the surest method of distinguishing racial types. The form of the nose is expressed as an index, known as nasal index, which involves two factors:
The width (opening in the bony structure between the eyes) and the length of the nose (as measured from the root of the anterior) nasal spine. Thus the nasal index expressed as a percentage is again B x 100/L and terms applied as follows: If the person has the nasal index between 55 and 70, he is known as Lepterhinian or long nosed. If between 71-85 as Mesorrhinian or medium nosed and if between 86-100 as Platyrrhinian or flat nosed.
At any rate, this index has proved to be of special use in areas in which the population is of mixed origin. For instance in India it has been claimed that nasal index is an adequate guide to social status.
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