Social Factors

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Social Factors

Large family

Social factors also exercise their influence on population growth and distribution. Large-sized families were and are still considered a measure of security in certain area of the world. There is a feeling in some people that there should be male children to look after them in old age. The joint Hindu family system and the desire for at least one male child in the family are important social factors affecting population growth in our country. However taxation system and desire on the part of individuals to have a better standard of living as also literacy have reduced the effect of social factors to a considerable extent. People have, due to better knowledge, taken recourse to family planning.

Absolute numbers do not give any indication of the impact of population on the land and its resources. The number of persons living per unit of land area gives a better picture. This is expressed in the form of density of population per sq. km. of land area.

The ratio of people to units of land area is generally known as 'Density of Population'. 'Density of Population' or 'Population Density' establishes quantitative relationship between number of people and number of units of land area. It is obtained by dividing the total land area by the total population, the quotient being the number of people per square kilometer. By applying the density concept to population numbers, one gains a better idea of the extent of concentration.

The average density of population for the world as a whole is about 36 persons per sq. km. (1985) assuming that the entire population is spread uniformly over the land area. The actual density of population varies from region to region depending on environment conditions. While there are large areas of relatively low density of population, areas of high density are small and scattered. Such unevenness in the distribution of population is seen not only in the world as a whole but also in each country or region. Such variations in density are due to difference in human response to the environment.

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