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Vegetables & fruits
Vegetables and fruits also are included in foodstuff as these play a very important role for maintaining and providing good health. Vegetables particularly green vegetables provide vitamins, which are so essential for good health.
Potato: It is very important vegetable crop. Its origin, though in Andes, it is now practically the produce of almost every country of the world. It is mainly used as vegetable but it is also used for feeding the livestock.
It needs cool and moist summer for its growth, but its growth is retarded to a great extent in warm climates. It does not need fertile soil. It can grow in poor soils as well but they should be light and friable also.
Potato is produced in Europe, and U.S.A. European countries producing potato are Russia, Poland, France, Netherlands, Slovakia, Germany etc. Russia is the largest producer of potatoes in the world. Potato is the main foodstuff of many European countries; particularly Germany, Poland and Ireland consume potatoes in large quantity. India, China and Japan are three main countries of Asia, which produce this foodstuff in considerable quantity.
Carrots, turnips, swedes, parsnips and marigolds grow underground. These are crops of primarily cool temperate lands. Excepting carrots and parsnips rest of root vegetables are grown for fodder purposes.
Cabbages and cauliflowers are green vegetables. Salad crops such as tomatoes and lettuces are grown intensively in many countries in specialized plots.
Fruits. Nowadays the facilities for preserving the fruits for a long period are available. Cold storage helps a lot in this respect. It, therefore, is feasible to export and import the fruits. Speedy means of transportation and communication have also increased the facilities for international trade. Fruit gardening has achieved more importance internationally than the vegetable gardening, as fruits of all countries are being exported and imported in large scale in the field of international trade. Fruits are varied in numbers and need different climatic conditions for their growth. For example bananas, pineapples, dates and coconut need tropical climate, but citrus fruits, figs, grapes almonds and walnuts need subtropical climatic conditions. In the same way apples, pears, plums and other both soft and stone fruits dry, fruits need temperate climate.
The fruits that have international trade significance are grown in temperate climate only. Bananas and mangoes belonging to tropical zone have some importance internationally. Citrus and deciduous fruits have achieved more utility than tropical fruits in the international world.
Orange: It is the principal fruit among the citrus fruits. It is grown mainly in Mediterranean type of climate, but it can be grown in warm lands as well as but the conditions that needs to be fulfilled is that the summers for its growth should have more precipitation. It requires frost-free growing season.
U.S.A. is the most important producer of oranges. Spain and Italy are the main producers in Europe. South Africa also produces oranges in large quantity as it has favorable climatical conditions. Australia. South America has all the necessary conditions for producing the orange and they are coming forward in this direction. The largest orange exporting country of world is Spain. U.K., Sweden, Germany, Belgium, Finland, Norway, etc. are some European countries, which import.
Grapes. It is produced mainly in Mediterranean lands. It has assumed a great importance, because it is not only used as fruits but also as a means to produce wine. Grapes also produce currants and raisins too. It is also important because it is a cash crop. It needs at least 60°F temperature for ripening. Outside the Mediterranean lands it is grown in Central Europe, Southern Russia, Lakes Erie and Ontario in U.S., Murray Darling Basin in Australia and North Western Argentina. India and Afghanistan also produce grapes. Wine, a byproduct of grapes is made in many countries of Europe. South Africa, Australia and Argentina are also counted as wine makers. Italy, France, Spain and Algeria are chief producers of grapes and wine both. 75% of wine production takes place in Mediterranean lands.
Champagne, claret, Burgundy are French wines popular throughout the world. Port of Portugal, the Sherry of Spain and Asti and Chianti of Italy are also famous wines. France leads in the export of wine in the world.
Apple: it is a cool temperate fruit. It is widely grown in Europe. Northeastern parts of U.S.A. and Southeastern parts of Australia and New Zealand also produce it.
Bananas: They are grown in tropical regions and have importance for international trade. They are exported both to Europe and USA in green conditions. Main banana producers are West Indies, Central America, Brazil, Equador and Columbia who produce it for commercial purpose. India is also a substantial producer of bananas and it export as well.
Pineapples: These are grown in tropical regions. These need moist and light soil for growth and are produced in Mexico, Cuba, Brazil, Malaya, Taiwan, Philippine, Hawaii, Queensland in Australia and Natal in South Africa. Hawaii is the main export of pineapples.
Besides these fruits there are plenty of fruits like dates, strawberries cherries plums peaches apricots and almonds, which are primarily meant for local consumption; but dates, figs and almonds are exported.
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